This period is characterized by three industrial revolutions.
There are 7 periods of development of management science in the Soviet and post-Soviet periods:
The first period (October 1917 – March 1921) Forms and methods of state centralized production management were developed, the principles of centralism, organizational methods of management, administration and state regulation were substantiated.
The second period (1921-1928) Further improvement of administrative management of production was carried out, attempts were made to use self-financing as the basis of economic management methods, trusts and trade unions appeared, and opportunities for employee participation in management were formally studied.
The third period (1929-1945). Associated with the organization of the industrial base of social production: attention was paid to improving management structures, methods of selection and training, planning and organization of production.
The fourth period (1946-1965) is characterized by the search for new forms of functioning and interaction of public administration, an attempt to move to a territorial and territorial-sectoral system of government, which eventually led to a deepening of administration.
The fifth period (1965-1975). An attempt was made to carry out economic reform by strengthening economic management methods. This stage proved the ineffectiveness of the reforms carried out within the administrative-command system.
The sixth period (1975-1988) is characterized by a growing awareness of the impossibility of reforming the administrative-command system that developed in the economy of the USSR. He proved the need for a radical change in economic relations, to radical economic reforms.
The seventh period (1985 and to the present). Carrying out economic reforms. This period can be divided into five stages:
a) the work of enterprises on the first model of economic calculation, based on the normative distribution of profits. b) application of the second model of economic calculation, based on the normative distribution of income, development of lease relations, c) introduction of progressive forms of labor organization, strengthening the cooperative movement, increasing economic freedom, d) introduction of territorial self- financing at all levels of government; e) the beginning and development of market reforms (implementation of this sub-stage is carried out already in the conditions of the independent national economy of Ukraine).
At the origins of Ukrainian management science is the world-famous economist M. Tugan-Baranovsky. who published a number of works, which revealed the content of human interests. Long before the formation of the school of human relations and behavioral sciences (1930-1950) M. Tugan-Baranovsky formulated groups of needs that force people to act differently. Other bases of need serve as motives for actions to achieve the goal. The scientist called ambition the most important stimulating motive for capital accumulation. Thus, M. Tugan-Baranovsky. rather, the American scientist Maslow introduced a mechanism to stimulate people to activity through meaningful theories based on the “pyramid of needs.”
Comparative characteristics of Japanese and American management models. The theory and practice of management demonstrate well-formed approaches in management – the Japanese and American models of management. While the general, strategic directions of the struggle for leadership coincide, there are also peculiarities in the approaches of the leading Japanese and American companies before securing their advantages in economic competition on the world market. The fundamental difference between the two models of management is that the Japanese are built on collectivism, and the American – on individualism and competition between people. All other differences are derived from it.
It should be noted that today there is a mutual enrichment of management systems. Much of the Japanese management experience is used, for example, in the United States and Western Europe. Differences in management practices in different countries are becoming less obvious.
To create and implement “own” management model, which will provide opportunities in specific conditions of economic development of Ukraine to obtain the highest result, it is advisable:
to study the theory of progressive management practice of domestic enterprises. At the same time, special attention should be paid to cultural and socio-historical factors that led to or influenced the development of effective management systems, to study best management abroad practices. The main thing is to understand the principles underlying the management systems of companies, the effectiveness of which is unquestionable; based on the above – to create control systems for a specific object.
Here it is important to emphasize the very creation, not borrowing; It is necessary to strive for systems that exceed the existing parameters, as well as systems that anticipate the expected changes in the global business environment. Practice shows that Japanese industry has not borrowed anything from the West in a holistic and unchanged form. Everything valuable it adopts, improves and only then implements.
Modern management theories and their evolution. Abstract
Stages of development of the world economy. Management development. Production management. Financial management. Marketing development. Logistics development. Logistics Features of the development of management theories in the pharmaceutical industry
Stages of development of the world economy. The history of the emergence and development of management theories dates back more than seven thousand years. Priests, who conducted trade operations, business correspondence and commercial settlements, also gained management experience. In the time of the pharaohs, a code of laws was issued, which contained the order of control and responsibility for the performance of a particular job.
The first civilizations were characterized by a https://123helpme.me/ethan-frome/ traditional method of resource allocation based on traditions and customs. In slave-owning and feudal societies, command division prevailed. The economy of this period was characterized by management based on performance control, ie the reaction to change occurred after the events.
However, the most active development of the world economy has taken place in the last three hundred years. This period is characterized by three industrial revolutions. The first, which took place in the XVIII – early XIX century and is associated with the introduction of steam energy in the industry, put an end to the dominance of the agricultural sector and led to the transition to machine production. The second, which dates to the late XIX – early XX century, was accompanied by the development of electricity, as well as a systematic and controlled process of technological innovation. The third industrial revolution, which began in the 70-80’s p. XX century, characterized by the rapid development of microelectronics, computer and information technology.
The result of the first industrial revolution was the introduction of the machine system in economic development, the second – the projected technological process, the third – the benefits of production and use of knowledge. If the second industrial revolution led to the replacement of local economic systems with national ones, then as a result of the third revolution there is a transition from national economic systems to the global economy, on the one hand, and maximum use of creative potential – on the other hand.
Knowledge is the basis of modern economic progress, it becomes a source of wealth, which has never been before. It should be noted that the consequences of material damage to a particular state (nation) both today and tomorrow can be overcome – in contrast to intellectual losses, which are problematic to overcome.
In view of the above, it follows that the XX century in economic terms marked a major transformation, in particular, the second industrial revolution contributed to the emergence and successful use of management, including production and financial management, as well as marketing and logistics. The evolution of these scientific theories is a set of “built-in” stages (links) on the principle of “telescopic antenna”.
Management development. Despite the long history of management practice, it was formed as a scientific discipline in response to the challenge of automation of production and became recognized and widespread only at the beginning of the last century. In 1911, FW Taylor published his work “Principles of Scientific Management”, which is considered the beginning of the recognition of the management of science and an independent field of research.
The evolution of management as a scientific discipline is a series of stages that often coincided:
stage of development of the science of human management in the production process – the school of scientific management (1885 – 1929 p.), the school of “Fordism” (1899 – 1945 p.), classical or administrative school (1920 – 1950 p.) .). It was based on improving the efficiency of the organization on the basis of improving production processes and operations; stage of formation of management mechanisms on the basis of the development of human relations – the school of psychology and human relations (1939-1950 p.), the school of behavioral sciences (1950 – our time). The stage is associated with the recognition of man as a priority factor of production and economic activity; the stage of building market-oriented management systems (from the second half of the last century) – is associated with the emergence of problems of overproduction in enterprises, caused by unmet demand; stage of active application of quantitative (economic and mathematical) methods as important areas of formalization of management methods and their transformation into management decisions – the school of management science (1950 – our time). The stage is associated with widespread use in mathematics management; stage of formation of systemic (since the late 50’s) and situational (since the 60’s of last century) approaches – associated with the consideration of the organization as a system whose activities are constantly dependent on a changing set of circumstances; stage of computerization of management processes (since the 1980s) – associated with the development of information and computer technology.
At the same time, management systems were formed on the basis of extrapolation, prediction of changes, flexible emergency solutions.